Archive for the ‘Cholera’ Category
Cholera is an intestinal infection that is manifested by diarrhea, vomiting and cramps.
Fluid loss from diarrhea and vomiting leads to dehydration which can lead to death. The infection is caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae, found in dirty water or food washed down with water “black”.
The classic transmission mechanism is the anus-mouth cycle, defined as the output of the infectious agent with the feces and ingestion, usually through contaminated hands of the mother or child. Another frequent mode of transmission is ingestion of food or water, other beverages or ice, not subjected to any purification process.
The disease occurs as outbreaks and given its greater exposure to contaminated food or drinking beverages outside the home, initially strikes more adults than children, the youngest, who may be infected within the household to be in contact with some infected adult, who may not have diarrhea but still eliminates the microbe in their stool. Therefore, to prevent cholera in children, also must be avoided in adults, following the four measures of personal hygiene and sanitation which are described below:
1. Use of potable water for human consumption. Families who have access to reliable water supply, get sick less diarrhea and cholera, to achieve this, we recommend the following:
* Wash and disinfect at least every six months, tanks, water tanks, cisterns and other reservoirs where water is stored, and keep them well covered;
* Boil water for drinking or chemically disinfected (chlorine or iodine), stored in clean, well covered and non-corrosive.
To chlorinate the water used:
* Household bleach, add two drops to each quart of water, mixing it and letting it sit for 30 minutes before using, or
* Chlorine tablets (sulfacloramina, 9 mg.), One for each liter of water, letting it stand for one hour minimum before use.
For iodized water use 5 drops of tincture of iodine to 2 percent for every gallon of clear water or 10 drops for cloudy water. Let stand for 30 minutes before using water. If the water is dirty (cloudy), should be cleaned before using a clean cloth sieve for straining way and let it stand until the residue settle to the bottom of the container.
2. Sanitary disposal of garbage, including dirty diapers, in sealed containers until collection or burial, and the fecal matter through drainage or latrines. Avoid defecation at ground level.
3. Washing hands after defecating or changing diapers and before eating food or feeding the child, with sufficient water and soap and dry thoroughly with towel or clean cloth.
4. Food hygiene:
* Wash with brush, soap and water or disinfect fruits and vegetables, placing them 15 minutes in water with chlorine or iodine.
* Cook food thoroughly or fry and eat them as soon as possible after preparation;
* Cover the leftover food to avoid coming into contact with flies and other insects, and keep refrigerated or heated above 60C;
* Before eating a food previously cooked, must be heated to the boiling temperature of 60_C or more;
* Avoid direct or indirect contact of cooked foods with raw foods;
Do not eat food prepared or sold in unhygienic conditions.
Some risk factors in children include poor nutritional status or the absence of maternal breastfeeding. Children under 4 months should receive only breast milk and no other liquids such as water, tea (tea), juice or breast milk substitutes. The breast-fed infants ill two and a half times less than those fed formula. In children under 6 months the mortality decreases to 25 times, in addition, breastfeeding is safe because it avoids the use of bottles, water and milk can be contaminated.